The occurrence of mutagenic and carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in drinking water is of great concern. In this study, dynamics and removal of nine N-nitrosamines in three drinking water treatment systems of a southern city of China are monitored during one year of sampling. The impacts of physicochemical treatment units on the removal and generation of N-nitrosamines were evaluated. The O3 and KMnO4 based pre-oxidation units have caused an increase in N-nitrosamines concentration, with O3 showing the substantial generation of N-nitrosamines. The carbon filter and ultrafiltration membrane units were found effective in removing N-nitrosamine precursors. These drinking water treatment systems have been useful in removing N-nitrosamine precursors; meanwhile, a slight decrease was found in already formed N-nitrosamines concentration. However, N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA) were found resistant toward all kinds of physicochemical treatments, and negligible changes in concentration were...

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