Background. Some ecological studies suggest a positive link between dairy consumption and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), and several restrictive diets promoted for people with MS exclude dairy. Aim. To test associations between dairy consumption and the likelihood of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD), a common precursor to MS. Methods. We used data from the 2003 to 2006 Ausimmune Study, an Australian matched, case-control study. Participants were recruited from four regions of Australia and dietary intake data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (272 cases, 519 controls). We excluded 17 participants with implausible energy intakes (20,000 kJ/day). Dairy consumption (servings/day) was calculated by summing the servings per day of milk (full fat, reduced fat, skim), cheese (hard, soft, cream cheese, low fat, ricotta) and yoghurt. Dairy consumption was energy-adjusted using the residual method. We used propensity score matching to test the associations between energy-adjusted...

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